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PDA Glossary

PDA Glossary of Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Terminology

PDA Technical Reports are highly valued membership benefits because they offer expert guidance and opinions on important scientific and regulatory topics and are used as essential references by industry and regulatory authorities around the world. These reports include terms which explain the material and enhance the reader’s understanding.

The database presented here includes the glossary terms from all current technical reports. The database is searchable by keyword, topic, or by technical report. Each definition provided includes a link to the source technical report within the PDA Technical Report Portal.

Browse Terms by Title


Browse Terms by TR #

  • Active Systems

    Systems with active temperature control (e.g., air/sea freight containers, refrigerated trucks/cars). (TR39)

    System with active temperature control. It makes use of electricity or fuel for the compressor to maintain temperature. Examples include refrigerated trucks, temperature-controlled ocean containers, and active ULDs. (TR58)

    Actively powered system that uses electricity or other fuel source to maintain a temperaturecontrolled environment inside an insulated enclosure under thermostatic regulation (e.g., cold room, refrigerator, temperature-controlled truck, refrigerated ocean or air container). (TR64) (TR72)

    (Synonym: Active Temperature Controlled System)

  • Active Temperature Controlled System

    Actively powered system that uses electricity or other fuel source to maintain a temperaturecontrolled environment inside an insulated enclosure under thermostatic regulation (e.g., cold room, refrigerator, temperature-controlled truck, refrigerated ocean or air container). (TR 72) (TR64)

  • Active Unit Load Device (Active ULD)

    A Unit Load Device (ULD) container used to consolidate cargo on aircraft that contains electrical or battery-powered temperature control systems for transporting temperature-sensitive materials; an RKN type is used in an FMEA example. (TR58)

    A unit load device with an active heating and/or cooling system that is typically used in air transportation, usually operated from externally supplied AC or DC power or from internal batteries. (TR64)

  • Active Unit Load Device (ULD)

    A Unit Load Device (ULD) container used to consolidate cargo on aircraft that contains electrical or battery-powered temperature control systems for transporting temperature-sensitive materials; an RKN type is used in an FMEA example. (TR58)

    A unit load device with an active heating and/or cooling system that is typically used in air transportation, usually operated from externally supplied AC or DC power or from internal batteries. (TR 64)

  • Ambient Temperature

    The air temperature of an environment. (TR58)

  • Ancillary Packaging Components/Systems

    Additional means used in combination with the basic transportation unit to maintain the required temperature during transport. Examples include active systems and passive systems. (TR39)

  • Annealed

    Controlled heating process used to remove residual thermal stress from glass containers after glass forming. [Synonym: Lehred] (TR43)

  • Attribute Sampling

    Inspection where either the unit of product is classified as conforming or non-conforming or the number of non-conformities in the unit of products is counted with respect to a given requirement of set of requirements. (TR43)

  • Autoclave

    A chamber for steam sterilization. (TR45)

  • Back Pressure

    Residual pressure opposing the free flow of liquid or gas at the outlet side of the filter. (TR45)

    Pressure applied downstream of a filter or other piece of equipment. (TR26)

  • Block Pallet

    A type of pallet with blocks between the pallet decks or beneath the top deck. These types of pallets usually carry more loads and last longer than stringer and typically 4 way entry. (TR55)

  • Breakthrough Limited

    A filtration operation resulting in a significant rise in filtrate turbidity accompanied by a small increase in differential pressure. This occurs when the adsorptive capacity of the filter is reached, resulting in the passage of particles smaller than the pore size of the filter that would normally be removed by adsorption. (TR45)

  • Brevundimonas Diminuta (B. diminuta)

    Small bacteria (0.3–0.4 &;mum in diameter by 0.6–0.1 &;mum long) used to challenge a sterilizing grade filter during validation testing. [Formerly Pseudomonas diminuta](TR45)

  • British Thermal Unit (BTU)

    The amount of heat (measured in Joules) required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by 1ºF.(TR64)

  • Bulk Packaged Product

    Consists of solid, liquid, or frozen product in a bulk container configuration such as a bag, tank, or drum. The product may be in these container configurations between process steps or prior to filling into vials, ampoules, cartridges, or syringes. (TR39)

  • Certificate of Analysis (CoA)

    The certification by a supplier of the performance of the material tested against a set of specifications, such asidentity, purity, moisture content, pH, color, bioburden, endotoxin, etc. (TR56)

  • Change Management

    A systematic approach to proposing, evaluating, approving, implementing, and reviewing changes. (TR 51) (TR 54-5)

  • Changeover

    The steps taken for switching multiproduct equipment from the manufacture of one product to the manufacture of a different product. (TR29) (TR49)

  • Class I Recall

    A situation in which there is a reasonable probability that the use of or exposure to a violative product will cause serious adverse health consequences or death. (TR55)

  • Class II Recall

    A situation in which use of or exposure to a violative product or may cause temporary or medically reversible adverse health consequences or where the probability of serious adverse health consequence is remote.(TR55)

  • Class III Recall

    A situation in which use of or exposure to a violative product is not likely to cause adverse health consequences.(TR55)

  • Clean

    Having product residues, process residues, and environmental contaminants removed to an acceptable level. (TR29) (TR49)

    The implementation of procedures to render an area, piece of equipment, system, or object free of adulterants and contaminants. (TR 70)

  • Clean Hold Time

    The time from the end of the cleaning process until the equipment is used again (which may be product manufacture, autoclaving, or a steam in place (SIP) cycle). (TR29)

  • Clean in Place (CIP)

    The process of rinsing or washing of process components, as installed without removal, in order to remove or eliminate any contaminants. (TR45)

  • Clean Water Flux

    A baseline filter flow measurement performed with clean water or a buffer, at a specified transmembrane pressure and temperature. (TR15)

  • Clean(liness)

    The measurement for the level of particulates, microbes, or other extraneous substances on an item or surface. (TR 70)

  • Cleaning

    The process of removing foulants from the membrane structure during normal processing, either through physical or chemical means. (TR13) (TR15)

    The removal of adherent visible soil from the surfaces, crevices, serrations, joints, and lumens of instruments, and from devices and equipment, by a manual or mechanical process that prepares the items for safe handling and/or further decontamination. The cleaning process should leave surfaces that are visibly free from foreign material. (TR51)

  • Cleaning Agent

    The solution or solvent used in the washing step of a cleaning process. Examples of cleaning agents are water, organic solvent, commodity chemical diluted in water, and formulated detergent diluted in water. (TR29) (TR70)

  • Cleaning Procedure

    The documentation that assures any product and process-related material introduced into equipment as part of the manufacturing process stream is removed and the equipment is adequately stored. (TR29)

  • Cleaning Process

    A process that is used to remove any product, process-related material and environmental contaminant introduced into equipment as part of the manufacturing stream. (TR29)(TR49)

  • Clinician

    A physician, psychiatrist, etc., who specializes in clinical work as opposed to one engaged in laboratory or experimental studies. (TR58)

  • Cloning

    The process of creating identical copies of DNA fragments or a homogeneous preparation of cells, viruses or other organisms. (TR47)

  • Cold Chain

    A temperature- and time-controlled supply chain for products (e.g., refrigerated products typically have a temperature storage range of 2 °C to 8 °C). (TR58)

  • Cold Chain Tolerance Groups

    This concept expands the “normal” definition of cold chain to include all products that need to be stored below 250C and also introduces the ancillary terms “ambient temperatures” and “controlled ambient”. (TR46)

  • Commissioning

    A well planned, documented and managed engineering approach to the start-up and transfer of facilities, systems and equipment to the end-user that results in a safe and functional environment that meets established design and user requirement specifications. Commissioning precedes Qualification and includes three phases:
    1. Inspection, testing, and regulation
    2. Adjustment and setting of work
    3. Functional testing (TR 3)

    A prescribed number of activities designed to take equipment and systems from a static, substantially complete state to an operable state. (TR 48)

    A well planned, documented, managed engineering approach to the start-up and turnover of facilities, systems, and equipment to the end-user, that results in a safe and functional environment that meets established design requirements and stakeholder expectations.(TR 54) (TR 54-5)

  • Common Carrier

    Transportation available to the public that does not provide special treatment to any one party and is regulated as to the rates charged, the liability assumed, and the service provided. A common carrier must obtain a certificate of public convenience and necessity from the Federal Trade Commission for interstate traffic. (TR46)

  • Comparability

    The quality or state of being suitable for comparison. FDA may determine that two products are comparable if the results of the comparability testing demonstrate that a manufacturing change does not affect identity, strength, quality, purity, or potency as they may relate to the safety or effectiveness of the product. (TR38)

  • Comparative Transfer

    Transfer of a method that involves the analysis of a predetermined number of samples of the same lot by both the sending and the receiving unit. (TR 57-2)

  • Compatibility

    Proof that no adverse interaction between the filter and the process fluid has occurred. (TR26)

    A term used in relation to the non-reactivity of filter materials with the substance to be filtered. (TR45)

  • Compatibility (Filter)

    The ability of a filter to be used with a particular process fluid without a change in the inherent properties of the filter. (TR41)

  • Compendial Procedure

    A method that is considered validated as published in one of the recognized compendia. (TR57)

  • Complaint Files

    (a) As defined by 21 CFR Part 211.198- Complaint Files. (b) A written record of each complaint shall be maintained in a file designated for drug product complaints. The file regarding such drug product complaints shall be maintained at the establishment where the drug product involved was manufactured, processed, or packed, or such file may be maintained at another facility if the written records in such files are readily available for inspection at that other facility.
    1.The written record shall include the following information, where known: the name and strength of the drug product, lot number, name of complainant, nature of complaint, and reply to complainant .
    2.Where an investigation under 211.192 is conducted, the written record shall include the findings of the investigation and follow-up. The record or copy of the record of the investigation shall be maintained at the establishment where the investigation occurred in accordance with 211.180. (TR55)

  • Compressor

    Components used to pump refrigerant through the active temperature-controlled system. (TR64)

  • Computerized System

    Collective application software, data and hardware platform that provides functionality, control and data to a user or other system. (TR48)

  • Concentrate

    The concentrated feed solution after the removal of filtered liquid through the membrane and into the filtrate. [Synonym: retentate, retentate solution] (TR15)

  • Concentration Factor

    The ratio of the initial feed volume to the retentate volume. (TR15)

  • Condenser

    Component that removes the heat absorbed by the refrigerant from the compressor and temperature- controlled area. (TR64)

  • Consumables

    This refers to items (e.g., SUS, storage bags, tubing, filters, diaphragms, flasks, etc.) that form or are a part of process equipment and are used on a per batch basis. (TR66)

  • Controlled Environmental Space (CES)

    An area that is controlled by regulating temperature. (TR64)

  • Corked or Cork Taint

    A musty-moldy off-flavor or taste imparted to the wine primarily due to the presence of 2, Combination Products 6-trichloroanisole (2, Combination Products 6-TCA) produced by the fungalo-methylation of 2, Combination Products 6-tricholorophenol (TCP) associated with corks, wooden barrels, and construction materials in wineries. (TR55)

  • Corrugate (also known as cardboard or fiberboard)

    A thin, stiff material made of pressed paper pulp or pasted sheets of paper and used, for example, for making cartons or fiberpak drums. (TR55)

  • Critical Process (CP)

    A process that impacts a critical quality attribute of the intermediate, drug substance or drug product being manufactured and therefore should have established critical process parameters that can be monitored or controlled to ensure that the process produces the desired quality.

  • Cryopreservation

    A process where cells, viruses or whole tissues are preserved by cooling to low sub-zero temperatures, typically -1960C. (TR47)

  • Customer

    In distribution, the trading partner or reseller, and In direct-to-consumer, the end customer or user (TR46)

  • Date of Manufacture

    For small molecules, the date of manufacture of a drug product is considered to be the initial date that an active ingredient has been added during manufacturing. For biologics the date of manufacture can be determined in multiple ways and should be consistent with internal quality systems and the product license application. (TR53)

  • Distribution

    Transport of a medicinal product from a drug manufacturer’s warehouse/storage facility to distribution centers, commercial customers, or clinical facilities. Subsequent distribution may also occur. (TR39)

    Movement of product within a designated supply chain, including activities that range from preparation for shipment to receipt of the product at the final destination.(TR58)

  • Distribution Temperature

    The temperature range, supported by stability studies, within which a medicinal product can be transported for a short duration of time without adverse effect on quality parameters. (TR39)

  • Distribution Testing

    Qualification of packaging components for physical distribution integrity like shock, vibration, and drop tests. (TR58)

  • Distribution Thermocouple

    Device placed in the interior of the controlled environment space (CES) to measure air temperature but is not placed in the product (see penetration thermocouple). (TR64)

  • Downstream

    Refers to the demand side of the supply chain. Downstream consists of one or more companies or individuals who participate in the flow of goods and services moving from the manufacturer to the final user or consumer. This is the opposite of upstream. (TR46)

  • Drug Shortage Prevention & Response Plan

    A document that provides a structured action plan to proactively prevent drug shortages and also respond to a shortage in the event that one occurs. (TR68)

  • Drug Shortage Risk Register

    A single source of information on risks that can result in drug shortages, associated risk levels, risk control actions with owners, status, due dates and residual risk after appropriate risk control actions have been taken. (TR68)

  • Economically Motivated Adulteration

    The fraudulent, intentional substitution or addition of a substance in a product for the purpose of increasing the apparent value of the product or reducing the cost of its production (i.e., for economic gain). (TR54-3)

  • Electronic Nose

    An array of electronic sensors designed to selectively identify chemicals responsible for odors. The zNose™ system is one example that is commercially available and consists of a vapor pre-concentrator, a direct-heated high-speed chromatography column, a solid-state sensor and a programmable gate array microprocessor system. (TR55)

  • Emissivity (ƹ)

    The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting energy as thermal radiation. This is measured between 0 (zero) and 1 (one); 0 having the ability to reflect all energy, and 1 allowing all energy to pass through it. Glass, for example, has emissivity of 0.91 (smooth, uncoated); aluminium foil has emissivity of 0.03. (TR72)

  • Evaporator

    Component that transfers heat out of or into the CES (to control the area temperature). (TR64)

  • Extemporaneous Preparation (EP)

    A type of compounding whereby a drug or combination of drugs and/or excipients is prepared under the supervision of a pharmacist to create a customized medication dosage form in accordance with a clinical protocol. (TR63)

  • Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)

    Refers to a legislative requirement that packaging manufacturers “take back” their packaging, or otherwise ensure (through a tax) that it is collected and properly disposed of. (TR46)

  • First Expiration, First Out (FeFo)

    A method of controlling inventory to ensure that the material with the shortest remaining shelf-life is distributed first. (TR52)

  • Full Loop Calibration

    A calibration process that includes all measurement system components, from sensor to measurement value (e.g., temperature calibration of a data logger and attached thermocouple wires). (TR64)

  • Fumigation of Wood Pallets

    The currently approved International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) fumigation method is methyl bromide (MB) fumigation and is one of the two approved phytosanitary measures in ISPM 15 (treatment and marking of wood packaging materials [WPM] that is required for international shipment. The use of methyl bromide is not permitted in some IPPC countries (e.g. the EU), and the latest ISPM 15 standard has a recommendation to reduce its use. Note: Steam heat treatment is the other ISPM 15 approved method. (TR55)

  • Generator Set (Genset)

    A generator unit that is used to provide electrical power to maintain the temperature in a container/ trailer in transit and is not attached to a stationary power source. Gensets consist of a diesel or electrically powered engine that produces the required voltage to operate the temperature control unit (TCU; reefer) on the container/trailer. (TR64)

  • Good Distribution Practices (GDPs)

    Defined as that part of quality assurance that ensures that the quality of the pharmaceutical product is maintained by means of adequate control of numerous activities which occur during the distribution process. (TR55)

    (commonly abbreviated GDP, or as GDocP to distinguish from “Good Distribution Practice”) Describes standards by which documents are cre­ated and maintained. (TR56)

  • Heat-Treated Wood Pallets

    Two types of methods to include kiln drying versus steam heat. (TR55)

  • Incoming Inspection

    A preventative program where parts or products are subjected to evaluation upon receipt.(TR43)

    A program where, upon receipt, parts or products are subjected to measuring, examining, testing, or gauging one or more characteristics of a product or service, and comparing the results with specified requirements in order to establish whether conformity is achieved for each characteristic.(TR 76)

  • Incoterms

    International commerce terms. These are a series of international sales terms, published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), and widely used in international commercial transactions. (TR58)

  • Intermodal Container

    A shipping container used to ship cargo through more than one of the four traditional modes of transportation (road, air, ocean, and rail). (TR64)

  • International Standards Organization (ISO) Container

    ISO containers are shipping containers manufactured according to specifications from the International Standards Organization. They may also be referred to as “sea containers” or “inter-modal” containers. (TR46)

  • In-Use

    In the hands of the end user who can be the health professional or the patient. In-Use refers to the time period where product is in the custody of the end user or health care professional. (TR53)

  • ISTA: International Safe Transit Association

    World-wide organization that supports its membership in designing and developing effective pre-shipment packaging performance standards, guides, and best practices for product distribution. (TR39)

  • Kiln Drying (Wood Pallets)

    A process of drying lumber in a dry kiln to a specified moisture content using the correct drying schedule (combination of dry- and wet-bulb temperature settings). Kiln-drying suffices as a heat treatment. This type of treatment is not ISPM certified and would not necessarily have an HT (heat-treated) stamp. However, this is a normal process for drying of lumber. (TR55)

  • Life Supporting or Life Sustaining Drug

    Life supporting or life sustaining is used to describe a product that is essential to, or that yields information that is essential to, the restoration or continuation of a bodily function that is important to the continuation of human life. (TR68)

  • Loft

    Thickness of an air-filled insulation material. (TR72)

  • Log Partition or Partition Coefficient

    The partition coefficient is a ratio of concentrations of un-ionized compound between the two solutions usually water and octanol. To measure the partition coefficient of ionizable solutes, the pH of the aqueous phase is adjusted such that the predominant form of the compound is un-ionized. The logarithm of the ratio of the concentration of the un-ionized solute in the solvents is called log P; The log P values is also known as a measure of lipophilicity. (TR55)

  • Logistics Service Providers (ISP or 3PIs)

    Freight forwarders and brokers that assist in moving the product, but may not physically touch the product. (TR52)

  • Manufacturing

    The production, packing, testing, storage, release and distribution of drugs or medical devices for use in humans or animals where the manufacturing is indented to produce doses, typically in significant numbers, for an undefined population of future patients or clinical trial subjects. (TR63)

    All operations including purchasing and receipt of materials to production, packaging, labelling, quality control, release, storage, distribution of components and the related controls. (TR 76)

  • Market Action

    Voluntary withdrawal, recall or notification to patients, consumers or physicians of marketed pharmaceutical or consumer healthcare products for compliance or safety reasons. (TR55)

  • Market Package

    The package presentation intended for the end user (e.g., bottle + cap liner + screw cap + label + dose cup + carton; may contain multiple units of product), but not including packaging used solely for transportation (e.g., corrugated boxes or insulated containers). (TR39)

  • Master Seed Stock

    Reference culture of a microorganism derived from an authenticated source such as American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and used to produce working seed lots. (TR51)

  • Mean Kinetic Temperature (MKT)

    The single calculated temperature at which the total amount of degradation over a particular period is equal to the sum of the individual degradations that would occur at various temperatures. Thus, MKT may be considered as an isothermal storage temperature that simulates the nonisothermal effects of storage temperature variation. It is not a simple arithmetic mean. (TR46) (TR58)

  • Meaningful Disruption

    A meaningful disruption is a change in production that is reasonably likely to lead to a reduction in the supply of a drug by a manufacturer that is more than negligible and affects the ability of the manufacturer to fill orders or meet expected demand for its product. A meaningful disruption is not an interruption in manufacturing due to matters such as routine maintenance and does not include insignificant changes in manufacturing so long as the manufacturer expects to resume operations in a short period of time. (TR68)

  • Medically Necessary Drug

    Any drug product used to diagnose, treat, or prevent a serious disease or medical condition for which no other drug is judged to be an appropriate substitute or there is an inadequate supply of an acceptable alternative as determined by the relevant health authority. (TR68)

  • Method Comparability

    The demonstration of analytical method comparability (AMC) for method replacements. A study to demonstrate that a modification to an existing method either improves or does not significantly change the analytical procedure’s characteristics relative to the methods’ validation and intended use. (TR57)

  • Microprocessor

    One of the five major components of a TCU, the unit interfaces with temperature sensors in the discharge and return air and adjusts the output rate of active cooling or heating to achieve the setpoint temperature. (TR64)

  • Moisture Content of Wood

    The moisture content of wood is calculated by the following formula: Moisture content = (Mg-Mod)/Mod. Where Mg is the green mass of the wood and Mod is its oven-dry mass (the attainment of constant mass generally after drying in an oven set at 103 ± 2 °C for 24h). The equation can also be expressed as a fraction of the mass of the water and the mass of the oven-dry wood rather than a percentage. For example, 0.59 kg/kg (oven-dry basis) expresses the same moisture content as 59% (oven-dry basis). (TR55)

  • Organohalogens

    The major organohalogens or organic compounds containing chlorine, bromine or iodine of interest are halophenols and haloanisoles, especially 2,4,6 tricholorophenol (TCP), 2, 4, 6 tribromophenols (TBPs), 2, 4, 6 trichloroanisole (TCA), and 2, 4, 6 tribromoanisole (TBA). (TR55)

  • Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drug Products

    Drug products sold in drug stores directly to customers without a physician’s prescription. (TR67)

  • Packout

    Insulated container that uses refrigerant to keep a product within a specified temperature and time range; see passive system. (TR58)

  • Pallets

    Pallets are flat transportation structures that are used in the efficient shipping, warehousing and in-plant distribution of goods. A loaded pallet may be moved using a fork lift or pallet jack. They are usually 48 x 40 inches in dimension. They are most commonly constructed of wood but may be plastic, metal or even paper. (TR55)

  • Passive System

    Systems without active temperature control. Refrigerants may be, for example, gel packs, dry ice, water, and/or ice. Examples include insulated containers, packouts and cool boxes/containers. (TR58)

    Systems without active temperature control (e.g., insulated containers with or without refrigerants). (TR39)

  • Passive Temperature-Controlled Transportation Systems

    Transportation systems without active temperature control (e.g., insulated containers with or without refrigerants). (TR64)

  • Pedigree, e-pedigree

    A pedigree is a record, containing information regarding each transaction, resulting in a change of ownership of a prescription drug, from sale by a manufacturer, through acquisition and sale by a wholesaler, until final sale to a pharmacy or person furnishing, administering or dispensing the prescription drug. (TR46)

  • Peltier Device

    Peltier devices are small, solid-state ceramic and doped-semiconductor sandwiches designed to function in small cooling and heating applications. The devices can be “stacked” for greater cooling/heating but do draw considerable power. The advantage of these devices is that there are no moving parts, no maintenance, no refrigerant gasses, no noise, and no vibration. Disadvantages may include: high cost, fragility, and scalability, in addition to the aforementioned high power draw. (TR46)

  • Phase Change Material (PCM)

    A physical material that stores and releases thermal energy when freezing or melting. A PCM releases energy when freezing [latent heat energy] and absorbs energy when melting. (TR46)

  • Planning Bill of Materials (BOM)

    A complete list of the raw material (chemicals, media, powders, resin, etc.) and consumables/components (filters, bags, tubing, containers, etc.) that are required to manufacture the product. (TR65)

  • Plant Utilities

    Utilities include pharmaceutical-grade water systems, compressed gases, pharmaceutical-grade air systems, heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, and space pressurization. (TR67)

  • Potential Drug Shortage

    A potential drug shortage is described as the occurrence of internal or external situations (single or in a combination of both), which could result in an interruption of supplies of a medicinal product, if not properly addressed and controlled. (TR68)

  • Practice of Pharmacy

    The interpretation, evaluation and implementation of medical orders which may include the administering, preparing, compounding, preserving, and/or the dispensing of drugs, medicines and therapeutic devices on the basis of prescriptions, clinical protocol or other legal authority. Note: Many localities have broader definitions describing very specific activities and responsibilities that further defines the practice of pharmacy. (TR63)

  • Preparation Site

    The location where extemporaneous preparations of Clinical Trial Materials (CTM) are made. (TR63)

  • Pressure

    Force applied per unit area, usually expressed as psi, mbar, kPa or kg/cm2. (TR45) (TR26)

  • Primary Pack

    Packaging that protects the inoculated carrier from damage and contamination without preventing penetration of the sterilizing agent(s). (TR51)

  • Primary Packaging Component

    A component that is (or may be) in direct contact with the dosage form. Some examples of primary components are glass vials, syringe barrels, bottles, rubber closures, and container or closure liners. (TR39)

  • Qualified Shipping Packaging

    Packaging that has been subjected to document testing that demonstrates with a high degree of assurance that a specific process will meet its predetermined acceptance criteria. Due to the “real world” nature of transportation, a qualified process may change over time, requiring appropriate monitoring. (TR46)

  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

    Is an automatic technique for identifying objects using radio frequency transmissions. An RFID system generally consists of a tag, reader, antenna, and software. An RFID tag is simply another type of data carrier. Essentially, tags compromise a semiconductor chip with memory, processing capability and a transmitter connected to an antenna (aerial). (TR46)

    RFID is a method commonly used in retail of single directional data transfer from an identification tag (e.g., a data logger) to a stationary gateway or scanner; it is not to be confused with real-time monitoring. (TR58)

  • Raw Materials

    Starting materials, reagents, and solvents used in the production of intermediates or APIs/drug substance. (TR54-4) (TR83)

  • Ready for Filling

    Prepared for loading with the pharmaceutical product. (TR73)

  • Ready-To-Use

    A marketing term often used to describe the benefits of single-use technology or SUS. This designation has no regulatory or scientific basis supporting suitability for use and the end user is responsible to evaluate and determine if appropriate quality requirements are met for their application. (TR66)

    Washed and sterilized components supplied in a package suitable for transfer into an aseptic processing area and used with sterile injectable products without further processing. (TR85)

  • Recalls

    Actions taken by a firm to remove a product from the marketplace; may be conducted on a firm’s own initiative or in response to an FDA request or order under the agency’s statutory authority. (TR67)(TR88)

  • Recipient Related

    A microorganism that, due to its numbers and pathogenicity, can cause infection, allergic response or toxemia in patients receiving the product. (TR67)

  • Reefer Container

    Refrigerated shipping container for transporting perishables, having its own stand-alone (selfpowered) cooling system. (TR54-2)

  • Resistance Temperature Detector(s) (RTDs)

    Resistance temperature detectors are temperature sensors in which the electrical resistance in the element increases with increases in temperature. This electrical resistance is then translated into a temperature value (expressed as a resistance versus temperature curve). (TR48)

  • Resistance Temperature Drive

    Sensors that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature. (TR3)

  • Resistometer

    Test device designed to create defined combinations of the physical and/or chemical variables of a sterilization process. Resistometers were formally called biological indicator evaluator resistometer (BIER) vessels. The resistometer is used primarily in the laboratory to determine D and z-values. [Synonym: BIER Vessel] (TR30) (TR51)

  • Retailer

    A “retailer” buys goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers or importers, either directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells smaller quantities to the end-user. Examples of retailers that sell pharmaceutical products are pharmacies and hospitals. (TR58)

  • Reverse Logistics

    The process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, cost-effective flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods and related information from the point of consumption to the point of origin for the purpose of recapturing value or proper disposal. (TR46)

  • Risk-based Triage for Drug Shortages

    A process of assessing and assigning priorities for managing drug shortage risks based on criticality and impact to patients (TR68)

  • RKN container

    The three letter code refers to the type of ULD. Position 1 letter identifies ULD category (certification, ULD type, thermal units). Position 2 letter identifies standard base dimensions. Position 3 letter identifies contour, forklift holes, and other miscellaneous information. Here R is standing for Thermal Certified Aircraft Container. K refers to the dimensions of the container (1,534 x 1,562 mm (60.4 x 61.5 in)). The third letter describes the container’s contour and fork lift capability. Refer to the IATA “ULD Technical Manual” for complete information. (TR58)

  • Secondary Packaging Component

    A component that is not nor will not be in direct contact with the drug product (e.g., vial seals, overwraps, container labels). The purpose of secondary packaging is to identify, protect, market, and communicate information about the product. Examples of secondary packaging include labels, cartons/folding boxes, and leaflets. (TR39)

  • Shelf Life (also referred to as expiration dating period)

    The time period during which a drug product is expected to remain within the approved shelf life specification, provided that it is stored under the conditions defined on the container label. (TR63)

  • Shipper

    An individual or company who tenders products for transportation. (TR39)

    The person or organization responsible for arranging transportation of goods with carriers and/or freight forwarders. (TR58)

  • Shipping

    The transit of any material by land, sea, or air from one site to another. This may include intraplant movements. (TR39)

  • Shipping Container

    A standardized reusable metal box used for safe, efficient and secure storage and movement of materials and products within a global containerized intermodal freight transport system. Intermodal implies that the container can be moved from one mode of transport to another without unloading and reloading. They are the main type of equipment used in intermodal transport, particularly when one of the modes of transportation is by ship. They can also be referred to as ISO containers because the dimensions have been defined by ISO. Other types of transportation containers can include truck trailers. (TR55)

  • Shipping Documentation

    Documents that have been written for a particular shipment; for example, CMR (Convention Relative au Contract de Transport International de Marchandises par la Route), BOL (Bill of Lading) and/or AWB (airway bill). (TR58)

  • Shipping Lane

    An established route of transportation between a specific point of origin to a specific destination. More defined routes will consistently use the same combination and types of transportation vehicles and transfer procedures, but this may not be observed through all shipping lanes throughout the last mile. (TR46)

    Lane described by origin, transportation node(s) and destination in combination with the used transport mode(s) (truck, aircraft, etc.). (TR58)

  • Slip Sheest

    Plastic sheets often made of polyethylene and sometimes used in distribution/transportation warehouse and shipping systems to separate pallet loads of product. Slip sheets may be important due to the ability of polyethylene to concentrate TBA in proximity to product. (TR55)

  • Stability Budget

    A stability budget considers the results of long-term, accelerated, freeze-thaw, and temperature cycling studies to determine the amount of time out of storage that a drug substance may experience without any significant risk to its quality. Firms have used the idea of a stability budget to assign permissible time out of storage for packaging and labeling operations for refrigerated drug products for some time. This concept has been expanded in the present document to include storage and distribution as well. (TR53)

  • Stakeholder(s)

    Any individual, group or organization that can affect, be affected by or perceive itself to be affected by a risk. Decision makers might also be stakeholders. For the purposes of this guideline, the primary stakeholders are the patient, health-care professional, regulatory authority, and industry (ICH Q9). (TR54) (TR54-2)

    Any individual, group, or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be af­fected by a risk. Decision makers might also be stakeholders. (TR54-5)

  • Storage

    The retention of pharmaceutical products in a location such as a warehouse; the storing of pharmaceutical products up until their point of use. (TR53)

  • Storage Temperature

    The temperature range listed on the medicinal product label specified for long term storage. (TR39)

  • Store

    A store is a temperature-controlled and / or temperature- monitored warehouse, chamber, or cabinet where pharmaceutical products are stored. (TR58)

  • Sub-Contractor

    An individual or company hired by the transport service provider to perform the actual shipment. The shipper and the sub-contractor do not necessarily have a contractual agreement. (TR39)

  • Supplier

    The entity with whom the agreement of the quality level is made and the transaction of purchase is made; the last link in the chain of manufacturers and distributors. The supplier may be the manufacturer.(TR76)

  • Supply Chain

    The process by which a drug product is shipped and distributed from the manufacturer to the end user. (TR39)

  • Tailgate Sample

    Representative and random samples of the lot taken by the manufacturer during the packing process for the use of incoming inspection purposes. (TR76)

  • Technical Diligence

    The means by which the technical capabilities of the SUS, its supplier and its fit with the end user are verified. It is complimentary to a quality audit program and becomes a recurring theme over the implementation process and subsequent routine procurement. (TR66)

  • Temperature Control Unit (TCU)

    A unit that controls the refrigeration and heating systems. It typically contains a microprocessor and thermostat to maintain the set temperature. (TR64)

  • Temperature Controlled

    The sequence of transportation events, from the manufacturer of the API up to the receipt of the final packaged product by the end user, which maintains temperature sensitive products within approved temperature specifications. Maintaining temperature control during these transportation events assures that product quality is maintained. (TR39)

  • Temperature Excursion

    Any event in which product is exposed to temperatures outside of the recommended storage and/or transport temperature range. (TR39)(TR58)

  • Temperature Monitor

    A unit that measures the prevailing temperature. Several types exist, including:
    • Stationary monitors installed in (cold) storage warehouses or storage facilities;
    • Mobile monitors that include:
    • Chemical indicators that change color when exposed to temperature over time
    • Electronic indicators that indicate temperature excursions, but provide little or no summary data
    • Electronic or mechanical data loggers that record and store temperature data for retrieval after arrival
    • Transmitting monitors that transmit near real-time data and excursion events using wireless/satellite interfaces and software for “logical analysis” of data. (TR58)

  • Temperature Probe

    A sensor (e.g., thermocouple or resistance temperature detector (RTD)) that has been specifically designed to measure temperature. Temperature probes may be control, resident, surface mounted, validation, mapping, or permanent. (TR61)

  • Temperature Profile

    Anticipated ambient temperature variation and duration to which product may be exposed during transportation. (TR39)

  • Temperature Sensitive Products

    Products whose quality may be adversely affected by temperature extremes (e.g., frozen, refrigerated, and certain controlled room temperature products). (TR39)

  • Temperature-Controlled Distribution

    Material handling and movement of goods from an origin site to a receiving site, where the goods are kept within a specified temperature range using active and/or passive systems. (TR58)

  • Temperature-Controlled Ocean Container

    An actively cooled metal box, most commonly 20 or 40 foot long which can be easily transferred between different modes of transportation, such as ships, trains and trucks. Sometimes it is called a reefer container or intermodal container. (TR58)

  • Temperature-Controlled Ocean Container (Reefer, Intermodal Container)

    An actively cooled metal box (commonly 20 or 40 ft long) that can be easily transferred between different modes of transportation, such as between ships, trains, and trucks. (TR64)

  • Temperature-Controlled Truck or Trailer

    A cargo box attached to a truck chasse or as a trailer pulled by a truck that is equipped with a temperature control unit (TCU) to provide active cooling or heating control inside the box. Refrigerated trucks or trailers are sometimes referred to as “reefers”. The temperature control units are typically powered by an integrated engine or gen-set and not the engine that is used to propel the truck. (TR58)

    A cargo box attached to a truck chassis or consisting of a trailer pulled by a truck that is equipped with a TCU to provide active cooling or heating control inside the box (refrigerated trucks or trailers are sometimes referred to as “reefers”). (TR64)

  • Tertiary Packaging Component

    A component that is used to assemble secondary or primary packages in the form of the basic transportation unit and to provide protection against mechanical impact. Examples are corrugated cardboard boxes, but corresponding plastic boxes/containers are also used. (TR39)

  • The Last Mile

    This is a multidimensional cross-industry term that defines a point in the supply chain where the product or service directly faces the customer, end user or patient. (TR46)

  • Thermal Mass

    The mass of material present multiplied by that material’s specific heat capacity. (TR64)

  • Transport Service Agreement

    A contractual agreement that describes the legal, logistical, technical and quality terms or contractual arrangements between shippers and transport services providers. Different names might be used for this type of agreement in different companies. (TR39)

  • Transport Service Provider

    Contracting party who mediates or executes the transportation of medicinal products on behalf of the shipper. (TR39)

  • Transportation Service Providers (TSP)

    Companies that physically transport the product. (TR52)

  • Transportation Study

    Study performed to generate data to evaluate the effect of temperature variation on the product during transportation on product quality. Other test, such as vibration, pressure, and drop tests, may be considered. (TR39)

  • Value Stream Map

    A tool used to document, analyze, understand and improve the flow of information or materials required to produce a product or service for a customer as it makes its way through the value stream. (TR68)

  • Verification Accredited Wholesale Distributors (VAWD)

    An accreditation governed by the U.S. National Association of Boards of Pharmacy for pharmaceutical wholesale distribution facilities indicating that they are in compliance with state and federal laws. (TR52)